Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Chinook salmon. King salmon. Red salmon.
Family Salmonidae. Order Salmoniformes. Class Actinopterygii.
Chinook salmon is a Pacific Ocean salmon that is blue-green on the back and top of the head with silvery sides and a white belly. There are black spots on the tail and upper half of the body. The mouth is greyish-black to dark purple. It develops a reddish tint around the back fins and tail during the mating season. Male Chinook salmon have a distinctive hooked snout at the top of the mouth. Less noticeable is the male's ridged back. Females do not have a ridge.
Spawning fish in interior Alaska rivers are bright red. Average length is 36 inches [91.4 cm], maximum 58 inches [1.47 m] with an average weight of 13.5 kg. maximum 58.5 kg. Chinook salmon may spend between 1 to 8 years in the ocean before returning to their natal streams to spawn, though the average is 3 to 4 years. Spawning in streams that are larger and deeper than other salmon utilise. Chinook salmon spawn from late summer to late fall, depending on the run. Chinook spawn in fast moving, freshwater streams and rivers over beds of large gravel.
At their birth stream, male and female salmon pair up to breed. The female digs a nesting hole, also called a redd. She deposits thousands of eggs in the redd before the male releases his sperm. After mating, the male and females stand guard over the eggs to protect them from predators. Chinook salmon burn a lot of energy migrating to the nesting grounds, breeding and protecting the eggs. Both parents die within two weeks after spawning, some ten weeks before the eggs hatch. Chinook compete with other salmon and trout for scarce spawning grounds.
A newly hatched salmon is called an alevin. At this stage, it looks like a thread with eyes and an enormous yolk sack which provides all nutrition for the fish in the first weeks of its life. Alevin remain in the redd until the yolk sac is absorbed. At this point, they work their way up through the gravel and become free-swimming, feeding fry.
Alevin must have cold, clear, oxygen-rich water to remain healthy. Excessive sediment in the water is one of the greatest dangers to salmon at this stage. It can smother newly-hatched fish or cover the top of the redd, trapping the alevin inside. Aquatic insects and other fish are an alevin's primary predators.
Chinook salmon fry usually stay in freshwater from 1 to 18 months before travelling downstream to estuaries, where they remain up to 6 months. Estuaries and their associated wetlands provide vital nursery areas for the Chinook prior to its departure to the open ocean. Wetlands not only help buffer the estuary from silt and pollutants, but also provide important feeding and hiding areas.
Freshwater streams and estuaries provide important habitat for Chinook salmon. They feed on terrestrial and aquatic insects, amphipods and other crustaceans while young. Predators include rainbow trout, coho salmon smolts and fish-eating birds. The young also compete with trout and other salmon for food. During their ocean existence. Chinook salmon primarily eat fish along with amphipods, mollusks, crab larvae and squid.
Mortality of Chinook salmon in the early life stages is usually high due to natural predation and human induced changes in habitat, such as siltation. high water temperatures, low oxygen conditions, loss of stream cover and reductions in river flow. Up to 85% of the eggs can be lost before hatching.
Many physical changes occur in a young salmon to help it make the transition from a freshwater to saltwater existence. This process is called smolting. As the time for migration to the sea approaches, the Chinook salmon replaces its parr marks, a pattern of vertical bars and spots along their sides useful for camouflaging the fry in fresh water, with the dark back and light belly colouration used by fish living in open water.
They seek deeper water, avoid light and their gills and kidneys begin to change so that they can process salt water. Some Chinook salmon remain close to shore during their ocean residence, but most undertake extensive migrations.
Chinook salmon is an important keystone species of the Pacific Northwest. It is a vital food source for a diversity of wildlife, including orca whales, bears, seals and large birds of prey. Chinook salmon is also prized by people who harvest salmon both commercially and for sport.
The species is distributed from Monterey Bay in California to north of the Bering Strait in Alaska, and the arctic waters of Canada and Russia [the Chukchi Sea]. Populations occur in Asia as far south as the islands of Japan. In Russia, they are found in Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands.
The Chinook salmon is Alaska's state fish. It is the largest species in the Pacific salmon and trout genus Oncorhynchus. While other Pacific salmon species have red flesh. Chinook meat is often white.
Jeremy Sherr regards the Chinook salmon as the King of Fish on account of "its circular life journey, its ability to transform from sweet to salt water, its gallant struggle upriver, its incredible determination to return ' to the source to breed, even at the cost of its own life." He saw them jumping the ‘ladder1 built into the Seattle dam in Northwest USA: "Exhausted, yet determined to push on. they tried, they tried again, until, with incredible strength and power of will, they cleared the obstacle and continued upriver."
Peter Coates in his Salmon monograph concedes: "Whereas many creatures reproduce season after season for as long as they once they reach sexual maturity, the salmon's entire life is geared toward a single act of reproduction in the frigid place of its birth that marks the culmination of its existence. … Inspired by its remarkable life cycle, we have selected the salmon as a symbol of indomitable fortitude and endurance, self-sacrifice, loyalty to place, untamed wildness, irrevocable fulfilment of destiny and the powerful intimacy between life and death." [Reaktion Books. London. 2006]
The 14 species in the genus Oncorhynchus belong to the family Salmonidae, which further includes Atlantic salmons and trouts. Asiatic trouts, chars, freshwater whitefishes and graylings. Salmonids are slender fish, with rounded scales, a forked tail and a single row of sharp teeth. All salmonids have a preference for cold water with a high oxygen content. All salmonids spawn in fresh water, but in many cases, they spend most of their lives in the sea. returning to the rivers only to reproduce.
Proving by Sherr [UK-lsrael] with 18 female and 6 male provers with 6c, 12c, 30c and 200c in 2001. Clinical observations from Sherr [S].
Female reproductive system. Endocrine.
M Family is a primary thing. Fertility I reproduction issues.
M Fear of dying and not having reproduced and given back. [S] This desire to reproduce is a prominent one in the proving of Oncorhynchus, "deep longing to be pregnant and have children. I dream about children all the time." "very intense fear of not being able to have children," "thought, 'How can I last this long without a baby?"' The theme of procreation correlates with the inner nature of the salmon, since its mission in life is to swim upriver to its birthplace and breed the next generation. From clinical experience we have found Oncorhynchus to be one of the main remedies for infertility, when the symptoms fit.
M Desire for a home, a place to put down roots, for a relationship with someone special. Feeling at home / not at home in surroundings: country: in this world M Disorientation. Sense of direction failing, lost or improved. Going the wrong way.
M Having had difficulty becoming pregnant, patients resort to extreme measures to conceive, requiring much effort and resolve. Just as salmon exhibit great determination and experience inordinate hardship traveling upstream, patients repeatedly endure uncomfortable medical procedures and painful surgery in their ambition for a pregnancy. One prover of Oncorhynchus dreamt she "was frantically going around trying to get pregnant." [S]
M Frantic but unsuccessful efforts: fruitless and frustrating. Desire to be productive and to accomplish something.
M Struggling with unachieved ambitions. Not being free to follow one's schedule and maintain order and control in one's life & feelings of frustration and depression. Feeling trapped, not accomplishing, not able to escape, not moving ahead. Craving motion. [S] Several Oncorhynchus provers experienced a similar sense of being confined, "feeling trapped: longing to be free." "want to escape." "feel I'm on a walking machine, walking but getting nowhere." Notably, walking was a regular activity for some provers, "went for long walks along the Thames."
M Perfectionist; likes everything neat and tidy. Must have things in order; a plan, a goal. Order is very important. Organiser, planner, communicator, running the finances and social calendar. [S] Provers were unable to work in disordered places and needed to tidy up and throw out old objects.
M Desire to be alone [many provers]. Desire to hibernate-remove myself from work. Desire to be alone and silent. Sense of depression and withdrawal.
M Oncorhynchus provers spoke of completing cycles, riding cycles, walking in circles, and dreaming of rings. The Pacific salmon swims in a large circle during its ocean migration and ends its life cycle in the river where it was hatched.
M Water is prominent in the Oncorhynchus proving, showing up in underwater sensations and dreams of oceans and floods. Images of rivers of traffic, going with the river and rivers flowing in different directions. Water is the right element to be in. Desire to dive into river when driving over bridge. Sudden urge to go swimming. Desire to make love in the water. Feels best when immersed in a bath. Strong desire for baths [S].
G Heightened senses. Ears as if on stalks and eyes as if wide open. Good night vision. Hearing acute. Very acute sense of smell. Sensitive to smells, esp. tobacco and garlic.
G Therapeutic indications: Infertility. Endometriosis. Ovarian cysts. Fibroids. Goitre. Slow, exhausting labour. [S]
G Craving chocolate: meat; salmon.
G Pains cramping, stitching or pressing outward.
G Sharp, stitching, stabbing - eyes: ears: abdomen: female: chest; cough; back; limbs
S Sensation of being underwater or in the clouds.
S Feeling top heavy and want to be horizontal; could topple over or fly off; spinning around, reeling in a circle anti-clockwise. Feeling as if on a ship
S Feeling of being beaten up. bruised.
S Occiput and temples as if squeezed.
S Tightness and pressure inwards as if wearing a steel balaclava or a metal skull cap.
S Head as if going to crack and split into two down centre from front to back; feeling of having to press on either side of head to hold it together.
S Lump in throat, sore throat. < empty swallowing. Suffocative sensation. S Heart as if too big. feels hard, sensation that heart will burst, > pressing with both hands on chest.
S Heart as if being pushed out of chest.
S Heart as if bursting out of chest, bulging, big. pumping.
S Gurgling sensation around heart while walking.
S Heart as if on right side of chest.
S Something heavy as if wrapped round back of neck.
S Upper limbs as if longer or as if short.
S Ankles as if constricted by a band.
L Headache over eyes and temples; in spring and fall. [S] Sinus problems.
L Running nose < going from cold to hot place. Streaming nose, running like a tap. & eyes streaming with watery discharge. & thirst for cold drinks. Tight feeling in maxillary sinuses. < cold air L Cold sores, herpes; may be < chocolate and stress. [S] L Sore throat, waking her. < swallowing saliva, > swallowing solids
L Hands locked and curved in a hooked position.
RUBRICS STRANGE, RARE & PECULIAR
Love for animals. Anxiety, about money matters: for others: if a time is set. Bathing, desire to bathe. Fruitlessly busy. Clinging, child clings to mother. Colours, desire for orange: pink; red. Desire for company of his family. Desire for countryside, mountains.
Alone in the world; drugged: parts of body enlarged; whole body hollow: seeing insects; being a queen: seeing snakes: being tall; trapped: being a victim. Desire for driving fast. Feels estranged, cut-off. Increased sensation of femininity. Love: love-sick; yearning. Desire to stay outdoors. Sensitive to noise, crackling of paper. Swimming, desires. Truth, desire for truthfulness: telling the plain truth.
On bending head forward. While eating <. As if falling from a height.
Pain, > hard pressure; > rest; < after rising.
Eyes Sensation of sand in eyes. > cold water.
Noises, like an explosion. All noises become louder on closing eyes. Sensation of water in ear
Congestion, sinuses. Pressing pain dorsum.
Ulcers, cheeks: lower gums; inner side of lower lip.
Mucus, morning on waking. Stitching pain during cough.
Appetite increased & nausea. Distension < during menses. Nausea, at thought of food; < after sleep: after eating nuts on an empty stomach; odour of stale tobacco; < toast. Pain. < after stool. Thirst < before menses.
Stitching pain. < sneezing.
Constipation < before menses. Diarrhoea, waking in morning with urging
Urination, urging to urinate in early morning
Pain uterus. > bending double. < motion. Cough Warm drinks >.
Chest Eruptions, itching: breasts, rash. Itching, breasts, nipples. Pain heart. < exertion; < lying: < sitting; > standing: > slow motion. Bursting pain heart. Sore pain breasts between menses. Perspiration in night during sleep.
Limbs Pain knees. < standing; < after stooping.
Sleep Waking, from itching: from slight noise: periodical, every hour.
Amorous, fallen in love. Breastfed. Children: neglecting child: newborns. Circle. Dolphins. House is in a flood. Jumping from a height. Menses. Being pregnant. Swimming.
FOOD & FLUID
Aversion Alcohol: wine. Chocolate. Fat. Fish: fatty fish; salmon. Sweets.
Desire Alcohol; beer: cold beer; red wine. Biscuits. Chilli pickled. Coffee. Cold drinks. Eggs. Fish; salmon. Fruit; juicy things: olives: tinned peaches: tomatoes. Ice cream. Meat. Pickles, chutney, vinegar. Red pepper. Salt. Salt and vinegar chips. Sweets. Tea. Vegetables; broccoli; carrots: cucumbers; green salad; green spinach soup: lettuce; raw onions.
Worse Bread; toast. Nuts. Vegetables: garlic, smell of.
Homecoming - desire for a home, a place to put down roots
- Fertility I reproduction issues
- Struggling with unachieved ambitions: fruitless and frustrating
- Heightened senses
- Sharp, stitching, stabbing