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As the two stars orbit each other once every 5-6 days, this compact star’s gravitational pull causes the blue supergiant to “bulge” toward it. In profile, the supergiant would resemble an egg, with the small end aimed at the compact star. This compact object with a tremendous gravitational pull is now widely agreed to be a Black Hole.
This system is called Cygnus X-1, because it was the first source of X-rays discovered in the constellation Cygnus. Discovered by a satellite in the early 1970s, it was also one of the first suspected black holes. It then became the subject of a friendly scientific wager between physicists Stephen Hawking and Kip Thorne in 1974, with Hawking betting that it was not a black hole. He conceded the bet in 1990 after observational data had strengthened the case for its designation as a Black Hole.
Detecting a Black Hole
Black holes don’t give off light, so we can’t just look for them. However, astronomers can find black holes and neutron stars by observing the gravitational effects on other objects nearby.
Astronomers can discover some black holes because they are sources of x-rays. The intense gravity from a black hole or a neutron star will pull in dust particles from a surrounding cloud of dust or a nearby star. As the particles speed up and heat up, they emit x-rays. So the x-rays don’t come directly from the black hole, but from its effect on the dust around it. Although x-rays don’t penetrate our atmosphere, astronomers use satellites to observe x-ray sources in the sky.
Formation of Cygnus X-1
Although Black Holes can be formed by stars that turn supernova, given data studied Cygnus X-1 most likely formed as a result of the progenitor star collapsing directly into a black hole without exploding (or at most produced only a relatively modest explosion).
The Event Horizon
Once a giant star dies and a black hole has formed, all its mass is squeezed into a single point. At this point, both space and time stop. It’s very hard for us to imagine a place where mass has no volume and time does not pass, but that’s what it is like at the center of a black hole. (Theme: Void, Empty)
The point at the center of a black hole is called a singularity. Within a certain distance of the singularity, the gravitational pull is so strong that nothing–not even light–can escape. That distance is called the event horizon. The event horizon is not a physical boundary but the point-of-no-return for anything that crosses it. When people talk about the size of a black hole, they are referring to the size of the event horizon.
The center of a black hole, the singularity, is the point where the laws of physics break down. These singularities are hidden, or ‘clothed’ by the black hole, so that the effects of the breakdown cannot be observed by people outside.
At the center of a black hole, spacetime has infinite curvature and matter is crushed to infinite density under the pull of ‘infinite’ gravity. At a singularity, space and time cease to exist as we know them. The laws of physics as we know them break down at a singularity, thus, making it impossible to envision something with zero volume and infinite density, such qualities of a black hole.
Many people think that nothing can escape the intense gravity of black holes. If that were true, the whole Universe would get sucked up. Only when something (including light) gets within a certain distance from the black hole, will it not be able to escape. But farther away, things do not get sucked in. Stars and planets at a safe distance will circle around the black hole, much like the motion of the planets around the Sun. The gravitational force on stars and planets orbiting a black hole is the same as when the black hole was a star because gravity depends on how much mass there is–the black hole has the same mass as the star, it’s just compressed.
Black holes are truly black. Light rays that get too close bend into, and are trapped by the intense gravity of the black hole. Trapped light rays will never escape. Since black holes do not shine, they are difficult to detect.
What Happens Within a Black Hole
Hot gas forms a wide, flat accretion disk that encircles the black hole. Friction heats the gas to a billion degrees or more, causing it to emit a torrent of X-rays — enough to fry any living thing within millions of miles
As matter falls toward the compact object, energy is released, dissipated by jets of particles that flow perpendicular to the accretion disk. These jets flow outward with high velocities. This pair of jets provide a means for the accretion disk to shed excess energy.
The x-ray glow from Cygnus X-1 isn’t steady. Instead, it flickers, which is one bit of evidence that identifies this dark member as a black hole. Gas enters the outer edge of the accretion disk then spirals closer to the star. If the center of the disk contained a normal star, or even a superdense neutron star, then the disk would get hotter and brighter all the way in to its center, with the brightest X-rays coming from the middle. Instead, the X-ray glow cuts off well outside the center of the disk. Observations with Hubble Space Telescope reveal that the central region occasionally flares up as blobs of gas break off the inner edge of the disk and spiral into the black hole.
These blobs are accelerated to a large fraction of the speed of light, so they circle the black hole hundreds of times per second. This causes the system’s X-rays to “flicker.” If the blobs of gas were orbiting a larger object, they would not move as fast, so their high-speed revolution is one bit of circumstantial evidence that identifies the dark companion as a black hole.
The black hole’s strong gravitational field “redshifts” the energy emitted by this gas to longer and longer wavelengths. Eventually, as the gas approaches the event horizon, the redshift becomes so great that the material disappears from view — just before it spirals into the black hole. (Theme: Spiraling and Undulating)
Black Holes and the Formation of New Galaxies
(See Video: Black Holes, Creation of Galaxies)
There is a growing body of evidence suggesting black holes are integral players in galaxy formation.
We think of black holes as sucking things in, but they have shown that when a jet emits from a black hole, it can bring new life by collapsing clouds and creating new stars.
Most large galaxies have a central black hole, and often they emit jets of high-speed material. In a galaxy known as NGC 541, its central black hole acts like a giant dynamo, accelerating globs of superheated matter and shooting them out along the axis of rotation. The jets are invisible, but astronomers have detected them with radio telescopes.
The radio jet plows into a cloud of nearby gas in a supersonic shock wave, compressing and heating the gas. Gas in the cloud becomes ionized and after the shock passes, the ions recombine, creating radiation, which transports energy out of the cloud. The cooling causes the cloud to contract still further, and when a knot of gas becomes dense enough, it can collapse to form a star.
In the early universe this process may be important because the galaxies are still young, with lots of hydrogen gas but few stars, and the black holes are more active. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang, when things were more crowded and chaotic, black hole jets probably triggered star formation in many nascent galleries.
Other researchers believe that these black holes located at the center of galaxies were what pulled the drifting stars and planets into a spiral pattern that resulted in a new spiral galaxy.
Black Hole Facts
In the strictest and most exact sense, there are currently 14 known black holes.
The known closest black hole to Earth is Cygnus X-1, located about 8000 light years away.
In theory, any matter can become black holes, as long as they are compressed to zero volume and thus, yielding infinite density. However, only the largest of stars have cores capable with the gravitational force to compress the star to the Schwarzschild radius. Most others stars without this gravitational force end up as neutron stars and white dwarfs.
Calm, Peace, Silence and Clarity
Calm from Lack of Anxiety, Being Present
Calm of Space, Peace and Clarity
Creation, Unity, Epiphany
Creation of a New Universe
Arriving at a Sense of Unity
Clarity and Epiphanies
Dark and Flashes of Light
Deep and Limitless
Impending Doom, (The End Is Inevitable)
Isolation, Disconnection, The Observer
Desire to be Alone
Aversion to Touch
Sense of Aloneness
Sense of Disconnection or Separation
Separate, As An Observer
Noble, Awe Inspiring Power
A Force Working Upon Us
Power – Inner Strength and Confidence
Pulling In and Spiraling Sensation
Pulling Inward, Drawn, Drawing, Compressing, Contraction, Shrinking
Heavy, Weighted, Dense
Spiraling and Spinning
Sadness, Depression and Grief
Something’s Missing, No Eotion, Void
Lack of Emotion
Empty is Strange and Disconcerting
Time Stands Still
Violence: Attack, Collision, Explosion
Vulnerable and Exposed; Panic
Other Misc Occurrences
Bursting, Exploding Sensation
Exhaustion (Sucking The Life Out of Me)
Hot vs. Cold
Pulling Inward Sensation (See Pulling In)
They may be sensitive to energies of others and likewise may feel they too can influence the energy of other people. There is also a vastness to this remedy (Theme: Deep and Limitless).
They would express and experience the world in a spacious way. Meaning that they would have a broad understanding of life, meaning and spirituality.
A key must see would be the central Pulling In Sensation (Theme: Pulling In). It would be difficult to prescribe this remedy without that.
Within this sensation, you may also find the spiral or circular motion also seen as objects are drawn into the Black Hole.
This sensation might be present in physical way or it might be present in a mental/emotional way.
They could feel depression (Theme: Sadness, Depression) that feels like it is pulling them. They might feel a sadness that is deep and dark (Theme: Deep and
Limitness). They could feel others are drawing them in or as if things are compressing in on them.
They might have thoughts that rush around their head. They could experience pain as constricting and pulling.
Another important theme is that of isolation (Theme: Isolation). This goes hand in hand with the sadness and despair in this state making this a likely remedy for depression. Cygnus has a profound disconnection and isolation from many of the emotional qualities that make us human. Because it is not human, this puts quite a burden on a psyche. This disconnection from emotions can create a disconnection from right and wrong, from morals and et hics, from love and hate.
This is a mental state that might create anti-social behavior and even violence. (Theme: Violence) They could experience this violence and almost serial killer behavior in their dreams as well.
This remedy may also relate to Autistic behaviors. Within this disconnection, there may be a sense of void or that something is missing (Theme: Void) (Theme: Something is Missing).
The polar opposite sensation of disconnection and is olation is the sense of unity and oneness. (Theme: Creation, Unity and Epiphany). As everything is pulle
d into a Black Hole it is compressed into something so small and united that it defies our understanding. The energy released from a Black Hole is used to
birth new stars. This is the astral representation of our unity as beings of energy in a world of energy, It’s also a representation of birth and creation.
The other aspect you would want to see is some representation of this clarity and oneness. This seems to be where flying and swimming come into the state. (Theme: Swimming and Flying) With flying in the air or with floating in the water there is a sense of weightlessness as well as a sense of freedom and calm.
As they float they can feel the oneness with the surrounding water. As they fly, they can feel the freedom sensation opposite of the pulling in sensation.
Scientifically it’s believed that time does stop within a Black Hole. It’s at these moments of unity and oneness that the person can even feel that time stands still (Theme: Time Stands Still).
The power behind a Black Hole is unstoppable. (The me: Power, Unstoppable) Therefore we would expect to see some hopelessness in the state (The me: Impending Doom).
It could easily be syphilitic and even with some acute aspects. Given the violence and potential for violence there could also be a paranoia and vulnerability. (Them
The proving of this remedy may reflect both the grow ing consciousness of the human race as well as the growing sense of isolation and desperation in human behavior.
physical symptom you might expect it to lead to a pulling in or drawing inward, constriction sensation.
Headaches are felt as constricting, as if a band or a vise or as if will burst.
Heart and chest symptoms are felt as constricting and tightening. Even the extremities can feel tight and constricting. Provers felt their teeth were “drawing inward.”
With the drawing in sensation, they would often feel that there was a stone or lump inside (this spot of denseness within their body). Provers had the sensation of a lump or stone in their stomach or abdomen.
They could also feel as if there were a “sinking” sensation inside. Often they would explain the sensation as heaviness. It would be difficult to prescribe this remedy wit hout symptoms of coldness and/or heat. Heat was experienced as flushes of heat often upwards or downwards in the body. Pains were often felt as
burning. Provers experienced burning sore throats, burning in their G/I tract, burning in their rectum, burning on their skin, burning in their eyes, etc.
They also experienced coldness, sometime coldness within their body, icy coldness, and were sensitive to cold.
In addition to burning pains, pains were often neuralgic in nature. Provers experienced numbness and tingling and sensation as if hot or icy needles were
prickling their skin. Some provers described the sensation as if electrical currents were running through their body. Pains were often cutting, stabbing and
Pain would come in waves, pulsating, or coming and going.
Other odd physical sensations include vision disturbances, flickering or just foggy and dimness. Fear of heart attacks and severe respiratory disturbances.
Itching and tingling on the skin, accompanied with burning.
Symptoms tended to left-sidedness (but not entirely).