Organon §90

Observe the patient and note which indications were present during health.

When the physician has finished writing down these statements, he then notes what he himself perceives about the patient, 145 and he inquires as to what [of all these indications] was proper to the patient in his healthy days. 


145 For example:

1. How does the patient gesticulate during the visit?

2. Is he vexed, quarrelsome, hasty, inclined to weep, anxious, despairing or sad; or is he comforted, calm, etc.?

3. Is he drowsy or generally dull-witted?

4. Does he speak in a demanding manner, very faintly, inappropriately, or in any other way?

5. How is the color of his face and eyes, and the color of his skin in general?

6. How is the vivacity and energy of his expression and eyes?

7. How is the tongue?

8. How is the smell of the mouth?

9. How is the respiration?

10. How is the hearing?

11. How much are the pupils dilated or constricted? How rapidly do they alter in the dark or light?

12. How is the pulse?

13. How is the abdomen?

14. How damp or dry, cold or hot to the touch is the skin in general, or this or that part of it?

15. Does the patient lie with his head bent back? With his mouth half or wide open? With his arms placed over his head? Does he lie on his back or in another position?

16. With what exertion does the patient straighten himself up?

17. Anything else the physician can perceive about him that is strikingly noticeable.