Acanthaster planci

Основные темы: Отчаяние или Умиротворение. Расширение или Сокращение. Ум: Ошеломленный, опьяненный, страх перед болезнью (рак, некроз). Делюзия — Мозг разрушается, некроз. Делюзия — насекомые, слизняки или улитки ползают по коже. Делюзия — он обнажен. Эротические фантазии.

Терновый венец
Acanthaster-planciОсновные темы
Отчаяние или Умиротворение. Расширение или Сокращение. Ум: Ошеломленный, опьяненный, страх перед болезнью (рак, некроз). Делюзия — Мозг разрушается, некроз. Делюзия —  насекомые, слизняки или улитки ползают по коже. Делюзия — он обнажен. Эротические фантазии.

Irritability and anger.
Sensation: Burning, heat, flushing. Stabbing, stitching, pricking. Pulling, drawing. Numbness. Pulsating. Pressure. Congestion. Falling, flying. Expansion. Itching. As if broken apart. As of a stone.

Dreams: Disease, necrosis, infestation. Erotic. Wild animals. Insects. Competitions and contests. Inadequately dressed. Danger, fire, explosion. Lost, searching. Late. Flying. Falling. Dancing. Talking with the dead. Water, sea, swimming. Subways, buildings. Money, disputes over money. system affinities: Immune. Nervous. Skin.

Clinical affinities: Eczema. Herpes. Ulceration. Oedema. Sinusitis. Migraine. Influenza. Haemorrhage. Complaints of the liver. Travel sickness. Palpitations.

Thrombocytopenia.* Leucopenia.** Peripheral numbness. generals: Weakness. Sensation of impending influenza. Burning, flushing. Numbness. Stabbing or pricking pains. Pulsating. Trembling. Nervous restlessness.

*Thrombocytopenia: low blood platelet count; increased haemorrhagic tendency. **Leucopenia: low white blood cell count; increased risk of infection.

Classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Echinoderm Class: Asteroidea Order: Valvatida Family: Acanthasteridae Genus: Acanthaster Species: Planci. Homeopathic name: Acanthaster planci Abbreviation: Acan-p. Common names: Crown of thorns starfish; coral-eating starfish. Etymology: Latin: acantha (s); acanthae (pl.): spine, spiny.

Remedy Source
Dr med Jorg Hildebrandt collected a crown of thorns starfish on a diving expedition to the island Bohol in the Philippines in March 1998. Part of its stomach and a tip of an arm were taken and immediately triturated to the first C potency. Later it was potentised to 30C and 200C by Mag. Robert Muntz, Salvator Pharmacy, Eisenstadt, where the remedy can be obtained.

Double-blind proving of Acanthaster planci by Dr. med. Jorg Hildebrandt. Fourteen healthy provers (13 verum 30C or 200C, one placebo) between 21 and 50 years of age; one patient also provided symptoms. The double blind proving took place from October 1998 to December 1999, with the provers starting on different dates.

Echinoderms: Aserias rubens, Toxopneustes piloleus. Cnidarians.

Sensation: Swelling, oedema. Burning, heat. Numbness. Stitching. Pressing. Tearing. Itching. Of impending influenza.
Function: Weakness. Trembling. Eczema. Oedema. Sinusitis. Migraine. Influenza. Haemorrhage. Chill. Weak and heavy extremities. Restlessness. Complaints of the liver. Thrombocytopenia. Leucopenia.

Polarities: Despair. Peaceful.
Sensation: Dazed with sleepiness. Dazed, with intoxicated feeling after sleep.
Delusions: Brain is dissolving. A necrotic abscess of the brain. Insects, spiders and snails in the skin.

Hypochondria: cancer, disease. Of being naked while in public; being inadequately dressed. He has fallen off a wall.
Function: Ailments from mortification (eczema). Mental exhaustion. Mistakes in speech and writing. Difficulty concentrating. Talks to himself when alone. Nervous irritability from slight causes (music aggravates). Angry.

Language: «Meanwhile I stretched out many legs to gain a broad (financial) basis to live on, costing a lot of energy.» «For me, the train for children has left» = I’m too old for children now. (DD Aversion to children Aserias rubens, Medusa, Sepia.)
Desires: Powerful, strong music (e.g. Tchaikovsky). Business activity.

Aversion: Company.
Aggravation: Soft music (soft music e.g. Schubert aggravates, while strongly rhythmic music like Tchaikovsky or Latin/Jazz ameliorates).

Activities: Dancing. Of falling from high places. Of flying. Of wandering. Of looking for something lost. Of being lost. Arriving home too late. Disputes over money. Contests, competitions.

Circumstances: Disease: necrosis, necrosis of the liver, legs; abscess of brain (brain is a black and crumbling mass which can be pressed out like a boil); the cerebellum is missing. Dreams of blisters on the skin with ants, slugs, snails and spiders inside. Ill relative. Pregnancy. Marriage. Erotic. Naked. Underdressed for the occasion. People: Relatives, friends, neighbours. A deceased acquaintance is standing and talking to him.
Animals: Wild animals. Ants, flies, insects, spiders, slugs and snails. Pigs. Objects: Of trains and subways. Of buildings. Of computer.

Phenomena and elements: Explosion. Fire. Water, ocean. Swimming in the sea.
Feelings: Danger. Erotic. Competition. Disgusted after dreams. Sensory: Colours.
Quality of dreams: Pleasant, anxious, terrifying, angry, irritable, continue after waking, heavy and oppressive.

Sensation: Sleepiness.
Function: Waking with headache. Comatose. Snoring. Disturbed through physical restlessness. Disturbed by salivation. Sleepless though sleepy.

Sensation: Itching, numb, swollen, hot. Stitching. Expansion, tension. Pressing pain in cheekbones.
Function: Herpes. Perspiration. Scaly skin eruptions at the margins of the hair (cured symptom), eyelids, ear and face in general. Painful sinusitis in head, eyes and teeth, bending forwards aggravates.

Head and Headache
Sensation: As if there is an abscess on the brain. Pulsating, throbbing. Stitching, stabbing. Drawing. Congestion of blood. Waves of heat. Pressing, above eyes.
Pressing inwards. Crushing, as if broken into pieces.
Function: Migraine. Perspiration of head and brow. Headache appears suddenly. Headache from the slightest touch to the nape. location: Forehead, above eyes, temples, back of head headache amelioration: Coffee. Warmth.
Headache aggravation: On rising. After breakfast. Afternoon. Midnight. Stooping. Bending forwards. Laughing. Fast movement.

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Hair and Scalp
Function: Skin eruptions at the margins of the hair (cured symptom). Sweating.

Eyes and Vision
Sensation: Burning and heat (lids). Stitching (in eyeball), pricking, stabbing. Numbness. Drawing (as if pulled). Pressure, with sensation of expansion in the forehead. Of expansion with waves of heat in the head. Heat and itching of eyelids. Swelling. Sensation as if the left eye is smaller.
Function: Eyeballs rolling. Itching, red, scaly eruptions on lids. Focal length changed when reading.
Aggravation: Rubbing. Bending forwards, bending over.

Ears and Hearing
Sensation: Numbness. Pulsating. Blocked.
Function: Noises in ears (with headache). Eczema of the ears. Itching eruptions become painful. Hearing loss.

Metallic taste after eating.

Strong, ravenous (with flushes of heat). desire: Eggs.
Aversion: Salad. Sweets. Tea.

Sensation: Burning, heat.
Function: Blisters (edges, under tongue) < touch.

Mouth and Lips
Sensation: Itching and Numbness of lips. Sensation as if covered. Dry.
Function: Swollen lips. Herpes around the mouth. White fever blisters. Watery saliva. Increased salivation < night. Inclination to swallow constantly.

Teeth and Gums
Teeth sensation: Burning and heat. As if loose. Stitching. Itching. Drawing, pulling. Pulsating. Sensation as if new teeth are growing. Pain < pressure, stooping, jarring, walking. > Fresh air. Pain in healthy teeth. function: Swollen gums. Affects molars. concomitants: Tooth pain with common cold.

Sensation: Stitching, pointed. Drawing, pulling. Contraction, cramps (crouching ameliorates). Heat. Pain like stones. function: Hiccoughs. Travel sickness. concomitants: Headache.

Sensation: Violent itching. Pain during stool.
Function: Diarrhoea. Bleeding fissure. Constipation (chronic).

Light brown. Yellow. Light. Odourless.
Half formed. Hard. Like sheep-dung, agglutinated balls. Soft.

Sensation: Pain in abdomen before urination.

Sense of smell
Odour: Smells imaginary and real: rotten apples in the house, sweet smells.

Sensation: Numbness. Cold. As if dripping water.
Function: Blocked.

Respiratory System
Throat sensation: Burning, heat. Pricking and stitching. Tickling. As if coated.
Throat function: Hawking constantly.
Voice: Hoarse.

Chest sensation: Oppression with trembling. Pulsating. Stabbing (sides). Paroxysmal stabbing. Pulling, drawing (sides).
Chest function: Palpitations (< bending forwards). Trembling. Perspiration in the axillae. Cough sensation: Ice-cold air in passages. Scratching behind sternum. Tickly. Dry. Cough sound: Dry. Heart and Blood Function: Audible, irregular palpitations. Palpitations with trembling hands. Haemorrhage. Thrombocytopenia [Reduced platelet (thrombocyte) count, resulting in reduced ability to clot blood, increased hemorrhagic tendency. Initial signs: bleeding gums, nosebleeds and increased bruising.] Hypertension. Leucopenia [low white blood cell count]. Sex, female Uterus sensation: Pain with menses, cramps, contractions: extending like a belt to the lumbar/sacral region. Breasts sensation: Stitching. Drawing, pulling. breasts function: Eruptions under the arms: axillae. Touch, Movement and Temperature Perception of body: Brain is dissolving/rotting away. Expansion. Tension. perception of time: Dreams of being late, arriving home too late. perception of pressure: Sensation of pressure, expansion and crushing; touch aggravates. Pains ~ Burning, hot ~ Stabbing, darting, stitching ~ Pulling, drawing ~ Expanding/pulsating ~ Contraction/cramps ~ Crushing/as if broken apart Heat/cold sensation: Cold hands and feet. General burning. Skin flushes. Fever. Chill in waves, > external warmth. Chill not > from warmth of bed. heat/cold function: Cold hands during chill.
Balance: Vertigo as if the floor gave way. aggravations: Afternoon, evening.

Skin sensation: Burning. Numbness. Itching.
Skin function: Goosebumps. Eczema (eczema from mortification and emotional causes). Dry and rough. Cracked. Exfoliating. Ulcers. Blisters. Vesicles. Oedema.

Back and spine sensation: Drawing. Pressing. Heat (as if sunburnt).
< Bending over, forwards, stretching. Heat in dorsal region.
Back and spine function: Perspiration. Twitching (shoulder blades).

Musculoskeletal sensation: Stitching, stabbing. Stabbing pain in elbow. Numbness. Drawing, pulling. Drawing in elbow, thigh. Heavy, tired. Burning of heel. musculoskeletal function: Pains in thighs, calves, buttock muscles.

Fingers and Toes: Dry, rough, exfoliating, cracked: soles of feet and fingertips. Blistered/vesicles on feet < walking. Infected. Ulcerated. Numbness of fingertips, fingers. Pains in bones of fingers.

Clinical Data
Case from Dr. med. Jorg Hildebrandt, Austria
Mrs H, born in 1958, is a blonde, slim, active, sensitive 42 year-old woman, previously prescribed Silica. Her presenting problem is a troublesome, itching, therapy-resistant eczema of the eyelids and ears, worse on the right side.
It started after a holiday in Malaysia in 2000. On the day that she got home, a thumbnail-size patch of eczema appeared first on the right upper eyelid and left lower eyelids, with reddening and scaling, later with extreme itchiness and swelling. It got worse that week, first on both upper eyelids and lower eyelids, later on the cheeks and at the side of the lower jaw.

On the third day after taking Acanthaster planci 200C, she reported: «On the first day, I got red, scaly spots all over my face, but they did not itch». On the second and third day: «The eruption on the upper eyelids and lower eyelids is still there a bit, not swelling, the intolerable itch has gone, no numbness.» She had previously stopped using topical cortisone. She feels hopeful. Two months later she relapses. Repeat of Acanthaster planci 200C. After that she says she is «unusually calm and composed, in spite of very many emotional and organisational problems.»

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At the follow-up she realises that, before the eczema started, she had been through three experiences that had left her feeling mortified. The first was that a competitor got the job she had been hoping for. The second was that a rival was appointed to be the official deputy to the boss. Thirdly, her professional rival had children and this didn’t seem to cause her any professional problems. The patient had put off her own desire to have children because of her career goals; she felt she had to give her career one hundred percent. Now she had neither career success nor children. In the meantime she felt she had «tfretched out too many legs» to gain a broad (financial) basis to live on, costing a lot of energy, dispersing energy.» And that this was not conducive to family life.

She loves music with a strong rhythm: Latin American, jazz and Cuban: not crooners. Tchaikovsky and Wagner: not Mahler and Schubert.

Proving symptom (in a male prover): «Music irritated me. I was at the music society today and could not bear Schubert. I hated the sound of it; it was almost «homosexual» for me. Tchaikovsky was good. The power, the battle, the force, destruction. That was great.»

The patient said: «I love new experiences. I’m not complacent. I always want to be challenged and try new things, so I don’t get bored.»

Six years later the patient remains well.

Other Medical Uses
The venom has been found to be antihypertensive. The thorn poison has been studied and found to cause hypotension, thrombocytopenia and leucopenia. It has also been found to contain liver damaging substances. Enhanced vascular permeability.

Hypotension: low blood pressure

Thrombocytopenia: low blood platelet count; increased haemorrhagic tendency.

Leucopenia: low white blood cell count; increased risk of infection.

Muscles, destruction: «A rich source of useful venoms has been found in the crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci. One of its deadly venoms has been identified as a myotoxic (muscle destroying) phospholipase A (Mebs 1991), and several other candidates for such effects have been identified (Shiomi et al. 1985, 1988; Mebs 1989).»

Muscles, contraction: One study found that venom of the crown of thorns starfish caused contractions of the uterus in rats and enhanced vascular permeability in rabbits. It acts to contract smooth muscle.

Symptoms after contact with the poisonous venom of Acanthaster planci9

~ Severe pain (lasting several hours or days), itching, swelling, heat and redness may occur with contact. The puncture site turns blue (erythema) and swells (oedema).
~ More severe reactions include stiffening of the joints with aching, numbness, tingling, weakness, paralysis, nausea, vomiting, headaches and cough. Swollen tender lymph glands in groin or armpit.
~ A spine tip in the finger can result in swelling and stiffness caused by the growth of granulation tissue typical of a foreign body reaction. In severe cases bone-destroying (osteolytic) processes may cause narrowing of a joint by destruction of cartilage, which requires surgery.

In Nature
The crown of thorns starfish was first described in 1705 by Georg Rumphius. Linnaeus named it in 1758. This is the only known venomous starfish. Although classed as an asteroidean, or sea star, for its many arms, it is also similar to the echinoids or urchins, because of its spines; sea urchins are also echinoderms. Adult crown of thorns starfish are usually about 30cm in diameter but can reach as much as half a metre. They will lose a limb when under stress, or in defence against a predator, but limbs can be regenerated within six months. Acanthaster planci vary in colour according to location; on the Great Barrier Reef they are normally brown or reddish-grey with red-tipped spines, while in Thailand luminous purple varieties can be seen.

Thorns: «The disc and arms are covered with a soft skin and stout, hinged spines two to three centimetres long, each with a three-sided blade at the tip. The spines E are covered by a thin skin containing two types of glands, which produce venom and mucus. The tissues of an A. planci contain toxic saponins, which are not only poisonous to humans but also to insects and soil organisms by their suppression of plant growth. The starfish therefore cannot be used either for food or fertilizer.»

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Communication and perception: Acanthaster planci is able to sense predators as well as prey by means of chemoreception, a means of smelling and tasting underwater. The non-centralized nervous system allows echinoderms to sense their environment from all sides. Sensory cells on the skin sense light, contact, chemicals and water currents. Higher densities of sensory cells are found in the tube feet and along feeding canal margins. Red pigmented eye-spots are found at the end of each arm.

These function as photoreceptors.
Feeding: Large numbers of crown of thorns starfish may gather to eat their way through a coral reef, but they are generally considered solitary, nocturnal feeders, maintaining distance from one another even when moving over a reef in numbers.

Adult starfish normally feed on coral polyps. They extrude their stomachs and digest the coral polyps by releasing digestive enzymes to then absorb the liquefied tissue. When live hard corals are not available, alternative foods include soft corals, algae, clams, encrusting organisms, gastropods, gorgonians, hydrozoans and sea anemones. They can live for six to nine months without food.

Reproducing: The crown of thorns starfish reproduces sexually. Females shed eggs into the water and these are subsequently fertilised by sperm released from nearby males. They typically assume a bell-shape when spawning. Fertilisation is synchronised through chemical signalling. There is no parental care of offspring. Larvae settle on the sea floor and continue development there, ending the swimming phase. Initially the juvenile starfish has only five rudimentary arms but extra arms develop rapidly as the starfish begins to feed on encrusting algae.
Within six months the starfish is about one centimetre in size and begins to feed on corals. It becomes sexually mature at the end of its second year, by which time it has grown to about twenty centimetres in diameter.

It is not known how long this species lives, but they have been kept in aquaria for as long as eight years. Growth rate and reproduction rates decline after three to four years.

Movement: Crown of thorns starfish walk on large numbers of tiny tube feet situated in the grooves running along the underside of their arms. These act like hydraulic suckers, operating by means of water pressure in the central cavity and tubes. The arms are muscular and strong, allowing the starfish to walk across the sea floor, as well as navigate the reef; they can move in reverse, turn around and move individual arms independently (Perrins and Middleton, 1985).

Defending: Crown of thorns starfish are armoured with impressive spines, offering a strong deterrent to attackers. However, a number of animals are known to attack and prey on crown of thorns starfish, notably the giant triton, and also certain molluscs, fish, crustaceans and the fireworm.

Senses: Chemical messaging (smelling and tasting). Touch. Photoreceptors. Balance.

Signature and Symbol
The crown of thorns starfish is spiky, sinister-looking and venomous; its threatening image provokes an immediate sense of danger. They are known as the plague of the coral reefs, systematically eating their way through large areas of reef, destroying everything in their wake. This not only kills the living coral polyps but the infrastructure of vast numbers of reef species that depend on the coral for their habitat. Reefs can take up to two decades to regenerate. The imbalance is thought to have occurred largely as a result of over-harvesting the triton shell; the triton is the main predator of the crown of thorns starfish.

— Poisoning symptoms were borne out by the proving: itching, swelling, heat, oedema, reddening, numbness, stiffness of muscles and inflammation of lymph glands.
— The ‘thorns’: stabbing, stitching, pricking pains.
— Destructiveness ofcoral reefs, digesting the polyps alive: the delusions of necrosis, necrosis of the brain, of the brain dissolving. Fear of disease, cancer.
— Dark and sinister: Nocturnal feeder, dark spines: necrosis features in dreams and delusions.
— The proving brought out clusters of symptoms in the extremities, particularly around the toes and fingers, including eruptions, ulceration and numbness. As well as obviously having many arms/legs, this an area of great sensitivity for echinoderms, with a higher density of sensory cells here than any other part of the starfish body. (Cross reference Asterias rubens for this affinity with toes and fingers).
— There were delusions and dreams of insects, ants, and spiders; this starfish bears a resemblance to certain arthropods. The theme of infestation by insects and parasites also occurs in the clinical data of Asterias rubens.

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Acanthaster planci Терновый венец Основные темы Отчаяние или Умиротворение. Расширение или Сокращение. Ум: Ошеломленный, опьяненный, страх перед болезнью (рак, некроз). Делюзия — Мозг разрушается, некроз. Делюзия — насекомые, слизняки или улитки ползают по коже. Делюзия — он обнажен. Эротические фантазии. Раздражительность и злость. Ощущение: жжение, жар, приливы. Колющие боли. Натяжение. Онемение. Пульсация. Давление. Застои. Падение, полет. Расширение. Зуд. Как будто разбит на части. Как будто сделан из камня. Сны: болезнь, некроз, заражение.… Читать еще »
Прувинг. Двойное слепое исследование Acanthaster planci проведено доктором Jorg Hildebrandt. Четырнадцать здоровых пруверов (13 30C или 200C, один плацебо) в возрасте от 21 до 50 лет и один пациент с имеющимися симптомами. Двойное слепое исследование проводилось в период с октября 1998 года по декабрь 1999 года, участники начинали с различных дат. Сравнить с Иглокожие: Aserias rubens, Toxopneustes piloleus. Cnidarians. Общие черты Ощущения: Отеки. Жжение, жар. Онемение. Колющие боли. Давление. Разрыв. Зуд. Ощущение… Читать еще »
Сон Ощущение: сонливость. Функционирование: пробуждение с головной болью. Коматоз. Храп. Нарушение из-за физической возбудимости. Нарушение из-за слюноотделения. Не может спать, хотя чувствует сонливость. Лицо Ощущение: Зуд, онемение, распухание, жар. Колющие боли. Расширение, напряжение. Давящая боль в скулах. Функционирование: Герпес. Потливость. Чешуйчатые кожные высыпания на границе с волосами (вылеченный симптом), веками, ушами и лицом в целом. Болезненный синусит в голове, глазах и зубах, наклон вперед усугубляет. Голова и головная боль Ощущение: Как будто… Читать еще »
Вкус Металлический привкус после еды. Аппетит. Сильный, жадный (с приливами тепла). Желание: Яиц. Отвращение: салат. Сладости. Чай. Язык Ощущение: Жжение, жар. Функционирование: Пузыри (на краях, под языком), уменьшаются при прикосновении. Рот и губы Ощущение: Зуд и онемение губ. Ощущение, как будто они чем-то покрыты. Сухость. Функционирование: распухшие губы. Герпес вокруг рта. Волдыри как от белой горячки. Водянистая слюна. Повышенное слюноотделение, уменьшается ночью. Склонность постоянно глотать. Зубы и десны. Ощущение: жжение и жар.… Читать еще »
Обоняние Запахи мнимые и реальные: гнилые яблоки в доме, сладкие запахи. Нос Ощущение: Онемение. Холод. Течет, как из крана. Функционирование: Заблокирован. Дыхательная система Ощущение в горле: Жжение, жар. Покалывание и стянутость. Щекотание. Как будто чем-то покрыто. Функционирование: постоянный кашель. Голос: Хриплый. Ощущение в груди: стеснение с трепетом. Пульсация. Колющие ощущения (по бокам). Пароксизмальная колющая боль. Тянущие боли (по бокам). Функционирование грудной клетки: Сердцебиение (уменьшается при сгибании вперед). Дрожь. Потливость подмышек. Кашель: ощущение… Читать еще »
Клинический случай. Случай от доктора Jorg Hildebrandt, Австрия. Миссис H, родилась в 1958 году, блондинка, стройная, активная, чувствительная 42-летняя женщина, ранее ей была прописана Silica. Жаловалась на зудящую устойчивую к лекарственной терапии экзему век и ушей (хуже с правой стороны). Всё началось после праздника в Малайзии в 2000 году. В тот день, когда она вернулась домой, пятно экземы размером с ноготь сначала появилось на правом верхнем веке и левом нижнем веке, красное… Читать еще »
Прочее использование в медицинских целях. Оказалось, что яд Тернового Венца понижает давление. Исследование этого яда показало, что он вызывает гипотонию, тромбоцитопению и лейкопению. Кроме того, он содержит вещества, повреждающие печень и вызывающие повышенную проницаемость сосудов. Гипотензия: низкое кровяное давление. Тромбоцитопения: низкое содержание тромбоцитов в крови; повышенная тенденция к кровотечениям. Лейкопения: низкое содержание белых кровяных телец; повышенный риск инфекции. Мышцы, разрушение: «Богатый источник полезных ядов был найден в морской звезде Терновый Венец Acanthaster… Читать еще »
Отравление Симптомы отравления ядом Acanthaster planci: ~ При контакте с морской звездой могут возникнуть сильная боль (длится нескольких часов или дней), зуд, отек, жар и покраснение. Место прокола синеет (эритема) и опухает (отек). ~ Более серьезные реакции включают в себя неподвижность суставов с болью, онемением, покалыванием, слабостью, параличом, тошнотой, рвотой, головной болью и кашлем. Опухание и болезненность лимфатических узлов в паху или подмышкой. ~ Контакт с кончиком шипа вызывает опухание и неподвижность,… Читать еще »
Ключ и символика Морская Звезда Терновый венец имеет зловещий вид, остроконечная и ядовитая; ее угрожающий вид моментально внушает чувство опасности. Она известны как чума коралловых рифов, систематически проедающая свой путь через большие участки рифа, уничтожая все на своем пути. Это не только убивает живые коралловые полипы, но и разрушает инфраструктуру огромного числа видов живых существ, которые зависят от кораллов как места своего обитания. Восстановление рифов может занимать вплоть до двух десятилетий. Дисбаланс,… Читать еще »